Nutrient, water, and soil type mangement of biofuel feedstock production by corn, sorghum, and switchgrass

PhD Dissertation:

Roland Ahouelete Yaovi Holou (2010). Nutrient, water, and soil type mangement of biofuel feedstock production by corn, sorghum, and switchgrass. University of Missouri–Columbia (USA). Degree Doctor of Philosophy In Plant, Insect, and Microbial Sciences (Plant Biology and Genetics).

Dissertation Main Advisor: Prof Gene Stevens, 

Co-Advisor: Prof Bill Folk

PDF of the  PhD Dissertation
ABSTRACT: Efficient use of biomass to produce biofuel and the development of more drought tolerant crops can contribute to helping address current and future problems faced by mankind, and are the focus of this dissertation. Objectives of experiments done in Portageville, Missouri, from 2007 to 2009 were to: (1) determine the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization rate on the grain yield, the content and yield of oil, protein, starch, and the nutrient removal by corn; (2) determine the effect of N fertilization rate and the soil type on the biomass, juice, bagasse, sugars yield, and the nutrient removal by sweet sorghum; and to (3) determine the best date to harvest switchgrass in order to maximize biomass production with minimum nutrient removal. We found that in contrast to sweet sorghum, corn required 179 to 224 kg N ha-1 for maximum corn grain yield. Sweet sorghum mostly responded to N fertilization only on clay soil; loam and sand soils had enough N when planted in a cotton/soybean rotation. However, the soil type and N rate highly impacted a variety of sweet sorghum yields, with the optimum yield recorded with 67 kg N ha-1 if sweet sorghum is grown after soybean or cotton. N fertilization changed the oil, protein, mineral, and carbohydrate composition of the corn kernel. In general, the increase of N fertilization rate increased the grain yield and also the uptake of most nutrients, suggesting that nutrient removal will be critical for biofuel production from corn. The nutrient removal by sweet sorghum significantly depended on the year, soil type and N rate. The return of the leaves and the bagasse to the soil significantly reduced the nutrient removal by sweet sorghum. In general, the loam is the best soil type to produce corn and sweet sorghum in order to maximize biomass, and carbohydrates yield, and consequently biofuel production.
Switchgrass cv. Alamo produced twice the amount of biomass as the Blackwell cultivars. From July to November the nutrient uptake in the aboveground biomass decreased and their sink was successfully determined. Harvesting switchgrass biomass in late November is appropriate to minimize the nutrient removal, maximize biomass yield and reduce the biomass drying cost.
Experiments performed in Columbia, MO, focused upon beginning to measure the root and the leaf responses of sorghum varieties Tx7000, Tx642, RTx2817, Px898012, and M81E compared to a well-studied corn variety, FR697 to limiting water. Using two systems modeled after the work of Dr. R. Sharp and colleagues, we found significant differences across the varieties. Drought stress significantly reduced the biomass yield and changed the morphology of the roots, suggesting that it can significantly impact the biofuel production from these crops. A combination of the change in the root protein content and the leaf and root lengths correlated with the drought tolerance of the varieties studied.

        


“Sorghum: Properties, Synthesis and Applications”, Book Edited By Prof Valentin M. Kindomihou at Nova Science Publishers, in New York, USA

Abstract

The applications of sorghum, which have significant impacts on human and animal development, have recently increased. This book includes chapters derived from original research and the synthesis of current knowledge on specific topics in the field. It is an original collection of research findings or summaries of articles from around the world that are part of discussions on the status of sorghum and its applications in various areas of development. This volume addresses physiological, ecological, functional and genetic foundations of sorghum through the examination of theories and case studies that explain various properties, synthesis and applications. The chapters address, respectively, sorghum attributes, heterosis association and molecular mapping for grains traits, ecophysiology, reproductive competence, molecular mechanism of flowering time control, sensory and nutritional properties, mechanisms involved in allelochemical biosynthesis, and applications of bioactive compounds, i.e., polyphenolic and acidic phenolics.

This book offers essential approaches including: (i) A generic and rapid way to combine the diversity of single nucleotide polymorphisms with heterosis, which facilitates the dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the quality and quantity of grains in an important sorghum crop; (ii) the principles and processes of extrusion in order to obtain grains of good sensory and nutritional characteristics; (iii) the indicators in assessing the role of sorghum as a source of energy in the productivity of poultry farming systems; and (iv) some characteristics of root and foliar responses to water stress of a genotype amenable to genetic modification. It also makes a sweeping analysis concerning the progress of current research in the floral transition of sorghum and the photoperiod response.

The final chapter highlights the importance of bioactive compounds of sorghum species, mainly in fighting diseases related to human nutrition. Case studies from around the world were reported, giving readers a real view of the extent of sorghum properties along with real-world applications. This book can be used as a reference for students, scholars, professionals and political decision-makers involved in the study and management of sorghum.

This book gives to readers a real view of the extent of sorghum properties along with real-world applications strategies. It provides references to students, scholars, professionals and political decision- makers involved in the study and management of properties, synthesis and applications of sorghum.

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Properties, Synthesis and Applications of Sorghum: The Manna behind the Rustic?
(Valentin Missiakô Kindomihou, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin)

Chapter 2. Heterosis Association Mapping for Grain Quality and Yield Related Traits Quantity in Sorghum Bicolor Diallel Implicates the Prevalence of Dominance Complementation
(Imri Ben-Israel, Dhruv Aditya Srivastava, Chengsong Zhu, Habte Nida, Jianming Yu, Eyal Fridman, Plant Sciences Institute, Volcani Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel, and others)

Chapter 3. Characterization of the Root, Biomass, Leaf, and Protein Content of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Corn (Zea mays L.) Grown under Two Different Water Conditions
(Roland A. Yaovi Holou and Valentin M. Kindomihou, Biochemistry Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, US, and others)

Chapter 4. Photoperiodism and Control of Flowering Time in Sorghum
(Tezera W. Wolabu and Million Tadege, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Institute for Agricultural Biosciences, Oklahoma State University, OK, US)

Chapter 5. Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Whole White Grain Sorghum Extruded under Different Extrusion Conditions
(Emilce E. Llopart and Silvina R. Drago, Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos, CONICET, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina)

Chapter 6. The Use of Sorghum as an Energy Source in Poultry Diets
(Monnye Mabelebele, Rob Mervyn Gous, Helen Victoria Massey O’Neil and Paul Ade Iji, University of South Africa, College of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Florida Campus, Rooderport, Johannesburg, South Africa, and others)

Chapter 7. Applications of Bioactive Compounds from Sorghum Species
(Monica Butnariu and Alina Butu, Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from Timisoara, Timis, Romania, and others)

 

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Sorghum: Properties, Synthesis and Applications

About the Author

Valentin M. Kindomihou, Ph.D. (ULB-Belgium, 2005) is applied ecologist and Associate Professor of Animal Production and Agrostology at The UAC (Benin), holding an Agricultural Engineer degree (Benin, 1995), MBA in Environmental Management (Niger, 1999), MS in Plant Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics (Belgium, 2001) and Matsumae International Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow’ Medal (Japan, 2006). His main field research is Grass and Forage Science while teaching courses including Forage Management and Ecophysiology, Agroforestry for Animal Production, Ecological Foundations and Environmental Issues for sustainable development, and Methods for studying Animal Breeding Systems. His research had resulted in over 75 publications. To learn more, visit:  http://www.leabenin-fsauac.net/en/profiles/valentin-kindomihou

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Estimation and monitoring of carbon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems in Benin, West Africa

PhD Dissertation:

Cedric GOUSSANOU 2018. Estimation and monitoring of carbon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems in Benin, West Africa. Ecole Doctorale Pluridisciplinaire, « Espaces, Cultures Et Developpement », Université d’Abomey-Calavi, BENIN, 129p. 

Promotor: Prof. Dr Ir. Brice SINSIN.

Abstract: The quantification of the contribution of tropical forests to global carbon stocks and climate change effects mitigation requires availability of data and tools in aboveground biomass and soil. This study intend (i) to make available volume and biomass models for species-specific and site-specific in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in West Africa, (ii) to estimate forest carbon stock, (iii) to monitor carbon flux, and (iv) to generate soil organic carbon (SOC) reference data for the benefit of REDD+ initiatives. Fieldworks were conducted in Lama forest reserve across three land-use types namely undisturbed forest, degraded forest and fallow. Non-destructive sampling approach was carried out on 501 sample trees to analyse stem volume and biomass. SOC was derived from direct measurements of organic matter (OM) content in soil. Six hundred and seventy-five soil samples were collected along 30 cm black cotton soil depth. The samples were analysed for bulk densities and for soil OM using loss-on-ignition method. Litterfall production and carbon fluxes were studied over two monitoring years at monthly intervals based on collect in 225 squares litter traps spread out in the whole forest and by land-use types.

From the modelling of volume and biomass as functions of diameter at breast height (Dbh) and stem height, species-specific models have better predictive capabilities than generic models. These allometric equations were applied to estimate carbon stocks of three land-use types. Carbon stock of the undisturbed forest was higher than disturbed forest. Carbon stock was positively correlated to basal area and negatively related to tree density. The study shown that large trees constitute an important component to include in the sampling approach to achieve accurate carbon quantification in forestry. OM and C contents and SOC were higher in the upper soil layer and decreased with depth. The low variation of these soil factors within each land-use type and their fairly homogeneous spatial distribution across land-use types confirmed that soils in degraded forest and fallow reached equilibrium, considering undisturbed forest as reference. Total litterfall production over the studied period (2 years) was estimated at 1.06 tdm ha-1. Seasonality and land-use types have significant effects on litter years fall variation. The litterfall trends were not uniform on the whole forest and presented similarities across land-use types. Leaf litter was the major contributor to total litterfall than wood litter and reflected the semi-deciduous trait of the forest. Therefore, littefall was more related to plants phenology rather than environmental variables. The fire disturbance that occurred during the study period suggested a longer monitoring period to establish the temporal pattern of litterfall.

The present study demonstrated the hypothesis that species-specific models are preferred to generic models, and concluded that further research should be oriented towards development of specific models to cover the full range of dominant tree species of African forests. The study explained the application of biomass models and ground truth data to estimate reference carbon stock of forests. Returns of nutrients to soil through litterfall affected soil organic carbon dynamics and required a specific attention to understand carbon balance of forest ecosystems.

Keywords: allometrics models, biomass, soil organic carbon, litterfall, tropical forest ecosystems

  • Vue globale des bâtiments du Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Octobre 2018)
  • FM Deve (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Système Agroforestier à palmier à huile. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Musée de Zoologie BIOTA et bâtiment Professeur Mama Adamou N'DIAYE. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Lokoli (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Odo Octhèrè (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Vue globale des 5 bâtiments du Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Octobre 2018)
  • Mare-Bali (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Bâtiment Professeur Nestor SOKPON (en haut à gauche), bâtiment des volontaires (en bas à gauche), bâtiment Dr KASSA (à droite). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Bâtiment Professeur Nestor SOKPON (à droite), bâtiment des volontaires de l'UAC (à gauche). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Cascade de Tanongou (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Système agroforestier à Faidherbia albida. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Building of the Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA). (Credit photo: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, October 2018)
    Building of the Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA). (Credit photo: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, October 2018)
  • Brousse tigrée (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)