Occurrence’s areas and eco-ethology of colobus monkeys (Colobus vellerosus and Procolobus verus) in Benin

PhD Dissertation:

Sylvie Gisèle DJOSSOU DJEGO (2013). Occurrence’s areas and eco-ethology of colobus monkeys (Colobus vellerosus and Procolobus verus) in Benin. Ecole Doctorale Pluridisciplinaire, BENIN, 195 pages.

Supervisors : SINSIN Augustin Brice (Bénin) et HUYNEN Marie-Claude (Belgique)

Abstract: In Benin, high anthropic pressure lead to habitats disturbances, some species of primates became vulnerable, even threatened, as this is the case of colobines. Thus, the problem of conservation of wild fauna, in particular that of the primates, became alarming. The main objective of the study is to determine the biogeographic’s characteristics and behavioural ecology of Colobus vellerosus andProcolobus verus in Benin.  We used a diachronic analysis of the extent of occurrence, the forms of threats, activity budget and the habitat use. To gather biogeographic data, we used techniques of investigator, walking survey in forests and visits of local markets where animal’s parts are sold. Moreover, transects lines methods and complete counting in natural environment associated to the results of investigations allowed to appreciate the relative abundance of colobus on various sites of occurrence. Lastly, the observations of monkey groups by methods of scan and ad libitum samplingjoined to quadrant method, allowed to determine activity budget and habitat use. Results showed that extent of occurrence of Colobus vellerosus and Procolobus verus respectively covered 20,506km² and 25,403 km² and currently, ranged in Guinean zone and Guinean-soudanese zone. Several threats are weighing on these monkeys such as the habitats disturbance, deforestation and the poaching.The mean abundances of populations of Colobus vellerosus and Procolobus verus in Benin which were estimated respectively to 543 and 574 individuals, are low and distributed on several sites of occurrence. In Lama Protected Forest, the encounter rate of Colobus vellerosus was 0.60 detection/km versus 0.11detection/km for Procolobus verus and reached 0.49 detection/km in Domè Community Forest. Resting, feeding, moving, socializing and others activity took up respectively 56.64%, 26.31%, 13.04%, 3.31% and 0.70% in activity budget of Colobus vellerosus.Concerning the species resources, colobus manifested flexibility in their diet because about thirty species were consumed. Also, sleeping sites showed characteristics of antipredation, concern and were located in proximity of food resources. Finally, it is appropriate to develop strategies and actions in order to reverse the trend of population decline in primates, especially in colobines.

Key words:  Colobus vellerosusProcolobus verus, biogeography, abundance, threats, habitat use,activity budgets, Benin.

  • Vue globale des bâtiments du Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Octobre 2018)
  • Building of the Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA). (Credit photo: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, October 2018)
    Building of the Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA). (Credit photo: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, October 2018)
  • Bâtiment Professeur Nestor SOKPON (à droite), bâtiment des volontaires de l'UAC (à gauche). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Vue globale des 5 bâtiments du Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Octobre 2018)
  • Système agroforestier à Faidherbia albida. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Brousse tigrée (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Odo Octhèrè (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Mare-Bali (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Cascade de Tanongou (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Lokoli (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Système Agroforestier à palmier à huile. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Musée de Zoologie BIOTA et bâtiment Professeur Mama Adamou N'DIAYE. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Bâtiment Professeur Nestor SOKPON (en haut à gauche), bâtiment des volontaires (en bas à gauche), bâtiment Dr KASSA (à droite). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • FM Deve (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)


Spatio-temporal use of habitat by civet (Civettictis civetta) and genets (Genetta spp.) in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve: Implications for conservation.

Master Thesis:

Janvier AGLISSI (2017). Spatio-temporal use of habitat by civet (Civettictis civetta) and genets (Genetta spp.) in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve: Implications for conservation. Faculty of Agronomic Sciences of the University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin).

Supervisor : Dr Etotépé A. SOGBOHOSSOU.

Abstract: Small carnivores represent a major component of protected areas’biodiversity in West Africa. Despite their importance, their knowledge remains limited in Benin and West Africa. The African civet (Civettictis civetta) and genets (Genetta spp.), sympatric species of the Viverridae family are part of these neglected species that coexist in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin. The main purpose of the current study is to improve the knowledge of these species’ ecology in West Africa. Specific objectives are to: 1) assess habitats used by civet and genets, 2) identify anthropogenic and environmental factors which influence the habitat use, and 3) evaluate the spatio-temporal niche overlap in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve. To achieve these goals, we surveyed 103 sites from November 2014 to April 2015. In each site, we set a camera trap composed of one infrared camera. Traps were installed on trees at diverse distance from roads, with 2 to 5 km between two consecutive traps. Cameras (Bushnell Trophy Cam HD, Moultrie M-990i infrared cameras and Scoutguard SG565 Flash Camera) were active 24 hours a day and stayed at each station 30 to 40 days. Pictures showed the date and time of caption. Pictures have been compiled with Camera Bases and data analyzed with Excel, PRESENCE and software R. For 3607 trapping days, we got 543 independent captures for at least 10 small carnivores. Trap success of small carnivores was globally 15 pictures by 100 trapping days with occupancy of 68%. Trap success of genets was 4.13 pictures by 100 trapping days against 2.52 for civet. Genets were best distributed in the reserve with a presence of 46%, and prefer the hunting zone of Pendjari. The civet was present in 30% of sampled sites and prefers the park. The distribution of civet is significantly influenced by the use type of zones while the proportion of the arboreal stratum and the distance to the village were the main factors influencing the distribution of genets in this area. We noticed a high temporal competition but low spatial competition between civet and genets because of the nearly complete overlap of their activity patterns showed by the Pianka overlap index (Ojk: 0.95). Our results suggest that traditional uses and anthropic activities are main threats to civet and genets conservation. It is therefore necessary to initiate measures to control and limit these pressures in order to guarantee their sustainable management in this protected area.

Keywords: Small carnivores, habitat use, cameras traps, niche overlap

  • Système Agroforestier à palmier à huile. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Bâtiment Professeur Nestor SOKPON (en haut à gauche), bâtiment des volontaires (en bas à gauche), bâtiment Dr KASSA (à droite). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Bâtiment Professeur Nestor SOKPON (à droite), bâtiment des volontaires de l'UAC (à gauche). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Brousse tigrée (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Building of the Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA). (Credit photo: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, October 2018)
    Building of the Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA). (Credit photo: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, October 2018)
  • Lokoli (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Vue globale des bâtiments du Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Octobre 2018)
  • Système agroforestier à Faidherbia albida. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Mare-Bali (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Musée de Zoologie BIOTA et bâtiment Professeur Mama Adamou N'DIAYE. (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • FM Deve (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Vue globale des 5 bâtiments du Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA). (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / LEA, Octobre 2018)
  • Odo Octhèrè (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)
  • Cascade de Tanongou (Photo credit: Dr Akomian Fortuné Azihou / Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée (LEA), Octobre 2018)